Although in men with HIV it is necessary the use of Assisted Reproductive Techniques, when the problem affects the other member of the couple, this is, the woman, this technique is not always required.
The main inconvenient that has been observed would be a reduction of the fertility in women with HIV, concerning hormones (FSH, Inhibin B and AMH) and ovarian reserve. Not only this, because of the viral infection or as a consequence of the antiretroviral treatment (HAART), the quality of the egg is seriously endangered, so In Vitro Fertilization becomes the best alternative.
Nor in the eggs nor in its escort cells, (cumulus cells) there aren’t any receptors of the virus. Therefore, the laboratory carries out an embryo free of HIV and the gestation can be attempted safely.
Thanks to the treatments with antiretroviral, once the pregnancy is accomplished, the moment when there has to be a special care to avoid the transmission to the newborn is the moment of the birth. Fortunately, with the current protocols the risk is very low.